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Vitamin D status in diabetic Egyptian children and adolescents: a case–control study

Seham FA Azab1*, Safaa Hamdy Saleh1, Wafaa F Elsaeed1, Sanaa M Abdelsalam1, Alshaymaa Ahmed Ali1 and Asmaa MH Esh2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, 18 Omar Bin Elkhattab St, Al Qawmia, Zagazig City, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

2 Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, Egypt

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Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2013, 39:73  doi:10.1186/1824-7288-39-73

Published: 15 November 2013



Recently, studies suggesting that vitamin D deficiency correlates with the severity and frequency of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and that vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of developing T1DM have been reported.


In this study, we aimed to assess vitamin D status in Egyptian children and adolescents with T1DM.


This was a case–control study including 80 T1DM diagnosed cases aged 6 to 16 years and 40 healthy children with comparable age and gender as the control group. For all subjects, serum 25 (OH) D levels were measured by ELISA, Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum insulin were measured by an electrochemiluminesce immunoassay. Serum glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also assessed.


Compared to the control group, serum vitamin D levels were not significantly lower in diabetic subjects (24.7 ± 5.6 vs 26.5 ± 4.8 ng/ml; P > 0.05). Among diabetic cases 44(55%) were vitamin D deficient; meanwhile 36(45%) cases had normal vitamin D level (P < 0.01). In addition, 26(32.5%) diabetic cases had 2ry hyperparathyroidism and 54(67.5%) cases had normal parathyroid hormone level; meanwhile, none of the control group had 2ry hyperparathyroidism (P < 0.01). Furthermore, we found a significant difference between vitamin D deficient diabetic cases and those with normal vitamin D level as regards HOMA-IR and diabetes duration (P < 0.01).


Public health message on the importance of vitamin D status; especially in diabetic children and adolescents, should be disseminated to the public.

Vitamin D; Parathyroid hormone; Diabetic; Children